Determinants of Obtaining Formal and Informal LTC across European Countries
The aim of this paper is to identify patterns of utilization of formal and informal long term care (LTC) across European countries and discuss possible determinants of demand for different types of care. Specific research questions are of the volume of different types of care and conditions under which care is undertaken. The latter include demographic factors, especially ageing of the society, health status and limitations caused by poor health, family settings and social networking. The analysis indicates substantial differences in obtaining LTC across European countries depending on the tradition and social protection model that determine availability of institutional care and provision of informal care. In the Nordic-type countries with high state responsibility and high provision of institutional care, informal care is of less importance and - if received - it is mostly care provided from on irregular basis from outside the family. With growing needs for care, formal settings come in. Countries of the continental Europe are less unified with high share of people using formal settings of care, but also combining formal and informal care. In Mediterranean countries provision of informal care, including personal care, plays much greater role than formal LTC.