The effects of high inflation and monetary tightening on the real economy
High inflation negatively affects firms and households in a variety of ways, including by eroding real incomes and by widening inequality. Central banks responded by tightening monetary policy stances significantly. This has naturally constrained demand through rising borrowing costs and smaller credit flows to the real economy. The negative impact on economic activity and growth is a standard feature of tightening, yet it deserves to be closely monitored. Four papers were prepared by the ECON Committee’s Monetary Expert Panel, discussing how the real economy is impacted by high inflation and monetary tightening. This document was provided by the Economic Governance and EMU Scrutiny Unit at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON) ahead of the Monetary Dialogue with the ECB President on 5 June 2023.